and economically speaking, this gas pipeline is of paramount significance. The
pipeline would connect Russia and Turkey via the Black Sea. TurkStream will not
only bring Ankara and Moscow closer together, but also it would provide Russia
and Turkey a new chance for exporting energy to Europe. That comes at a time
the United States is opposing the completion of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline
project, which is planned to carry Russia's gas to Europe and Germany via the
Baltic Sea. Therefore, TurkStream takes up added significance, Shana wrote.
TurkStream pipeline has so far seen ups and downs. Its construction came to a
halt in November 2015 following the downing of a Russian warplane by Turkey
along the border with Syria.
is set to carry natural gas from Russkaya compressor station near Anapa in
Krasnodar Region across the Black Sea to Kıyıköy on the Turkish Thrace coast.
two 930-km pipelines, TurkStream is able to supply over 30bcm/year of natural
gas from Russia to supply Turkey's needs.
construction of the offshore section, the onshore section on Turkey's soil
remains to be constructed for this project to be completed. According to
schedule, Russia's gas is planned to be exported to Turkey via this pipeline by
Moscow and Ankara are the main parties to the TurkStream pipeline, this project
will not be limited to these two nations. After carrying gas from Russia to
Turkey, it is forecast to take gas to other European countries like Bulgaria,
Serbia, Greece and Italy. In fact, once this project becomes operational
Russia's gas will go to southern and southeastern Europe via Turkey's western
years, energy-related equations have been instrumental in expanding political
and economic ties between Russia and Turkey. Russia is the second gas supplier
to Turkey. Ankara receives 76% of Moscow's total energy exports. Turkey signed
a deal in 1986 to buy 6 bcm/year of natural gas from Russia for 25 years. A
similar agreement was signed in 1998 for 8bmc of natural gas. In addition to
bilateral energy deals, Russia and Turkey have lots of projects to carry energy
from Russia to Europe via Turkey's territory. Meantime, cooperation between the
two countries in the energy sector is not limited to fossil energies. Over the
past years, Moscow has expressed readiness to sell atomic reactors to Turkey
and fuel them. Turkey has welcomed the offer.
and operation of the TurkStream gas pipeline will enable Russia to reduce its
dependence on the Ukraine pipeline for carrying gas to Europe. That is a big
advantage for diversification of energy resources, which has been a policy
followed by Russia vis-à-vis Europe. Europe is interested in laying out the
Nabucco pipeline and using gas sources in Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan, but
Russia asserts it can realize its objectives of diversifying sources of energy
supply to Europe through diversifying gas pipelines as well as gas transmission
routes to Europe.
In a bid to
upgrade the security of gas supply to Europe, Russia has made efforts to
diversify routes of gas transfer to Europe, one of which is the TurkStream
pipeline project. This route can diversify Russia's gas exports to Europe and
avoid to a great extent damage from possible interruption in gas exports by the
countries located on the pipeline route. Therefore, for the following reasons
Russia attaches great significance to Turkey.
Russia views Turkey as a very important corridor to carry its energy to markets
in Europe, Middle East and North Africa and therefore shows interest in the
expansion of the pipeline linking the two nations. Materialization of this
objective will allow the Russians to carry their energy to the Mediterranean without
having to cross the Bosporus Strait. Therefore, Turkey can become the route for
the transfer of Russia's energy to Europe.
Ankara is able to obstruct the construction of pipelines that would carry oil
and gas from the Caspian Sea and Middle East regions to Europe. In fact, in
light of Europe's interest in diversifying its oil and gas supply sources,
using the Turkey route will help improve Russia's standing in rivalry with
other pipelines like Nabucco.
Turkey is of high significance for Russia in terms of energy transfer.
political front, while Russia is making efforts to distance Turkey away from
NATO towards itself, economic benefits and mutual needs in the energy sector
could serve as an effective tool in Russia's hands to push ahead with its
also enjoying benefits from the TurkStream project. In 2008, the Turkish
Foreign Ministry released a national energy strategy, which laid emphasis on
Turkey growing into the main hub of energy transmission to Europe in Central
Asia, Caucasus, the Middle East, the Balkans and Russia.
since invested in realizing this objective and plans under its long-term
economic and political perspective to turn Ceyhan Port into an energy terminal
in the region. To that effect, Turkey has in recent years been a major party to
discussions on energy transfer to Europe. Therefore, Russia is of strategic
importance in the energy sector for Turkey for at least two reasons as follows:
Russia provides the bulk of Turkey's energy needs. Simultaneously with the pace
of industrial production growth in Turkey, this country has seen its energy
consumption grow. Therefore, amid conditions of fast growth in energy demand in
Turkey, energy giant Russia can play a significant role in oil and gas supply
to Turkey. That is particularly important, as in their view, Middle East
nations cannot be a stable source of energy for Turkey due to instability and
reason stems from Russia's significant role in Turkey's energy strategy. Turkey
is willing to be an intermediary nation in oil and gas exports from Russia and
the Caspian Sea region to Europe. Ankara is determined to become the main focal
point of transit between oil and gas producing areas and markets in Europe. In
case this strategy of Turkey reaches a result, it can then turn into the vital
link in the energy stream which connects the Caspian Sea region to Europe.
Therefore, under conditions where Russia remains the most important and the
main supplier of energy to the European Union, the Turks know pretty well that
it is impossible without cooperation with Russia.
the TurkStream project is instrumental in supplying Turkey's natural gas demand
and will be able to supply necessary gas supply to Turkey's Marmaris where
industrial production is high.
Turkey is currently purchasing more than 14 bcm of natural gas via Ukraine,
Moldavia, Romania and Bulgaria, while the TurkStream project can provide
natural gas at a much lower price because natural gas would be directly pumped
into Turkey via TurkStream.
to that, the TurkStream pipeline will guarantee the security of transmission of
gas to Turkey without being affected by relations between those countries and
Turkey or Russia.
When part of
gas supply to Europe goes via Turkey's territory, it would help this country
bolster its strategic standing, which would turn Turkey into a bridge for
energy exports from producers to consumers. Turkey has in the past years worked
on other projects like the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) and the
Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) for energy transmission through its territory.
becomes the energy hub in the region it would mean Turkey's political standing
has strengthened vis-à-vis European nations, which would influence future
interactions between Ankara and Brussels and even Turkey's EU membership bid.
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